Computer domestica

Popular Sinclair ZX Spectrum using the Z80 microprocessor.
It’s called home computer or home computer to the second generation of computers, which entered the market with the birth of the Altair 8800 and extends through early 90s. This includes all 8-bit computers (mainly CPU Zilog Z80, MOS Technology 6502 or Motorola 6800) and the first wave of computers with 16-bit CPU (mainly Motorola 68000 and Intel 8086 and 8088). The term comes from leading computer industry at home. Although it is often excluded from that group to IBM PC compatible, the fact is that until the final triumph and the adoption of the term Personal Computer, had to compete with the lines sponsored by Atari, Commodore and Apple Computer, so some opt for included in the category of a domestic model more significant 16 bits, or at least the PC compatible market-oriented products such as Tandy.
In a way, keeping a certain similarity with the new animal forms appeared in the Cambrian period, a large number of machines of all kinds, including rarities like the computer language Forth Jupiter Ace appeared on the market and disappeared again. Some types of computers were kept for longer, others evolved trying to maintain compatibility (there are, eg., Apple II emulation card for the first Mac). However, at the end of the decade most were eliminated by the IBM-compatible personal computer and the newer generations of video game consoles because they used their own incompatible formats. IBM Revolution in 1981 was caused by the departure of IBM’s personal computer (5150).
Nevertheless, there are still groups of users who do not give up using their old equipment and improve the possibilities of providing them with modern hard drive or Internet connection. While all are very active (taking into account the shrinking user base), distinguished by individual merits of the users in the MSX 8-bit and the Commodore Amiga in the 16 bits (described by one writer as the villages MacByte irreducible of Gauls resisting the siege of the legions Wintel). They have also given birth to a number of hobbies that are normally covered under the term RetroInformatica.
One of the best known is the emulation standards for software, but also for hardware, these old computers and consoles in all types of devices: modern personal computers, consoles, PDAs, mobile phones, DVD players DTT decoders, cameras digital …
Many of these computers were superficially similar, and usually had a keyboard integrated manufacturing cheap housing in the housing below the motherboard with the CPU, an external power supply and display unit as a most common household television. Many used audio cassettes and compact mechanism (notoriously unreliable) storage of data as the floppy disk units were very expensive at that time. The low price was common to most computers.
Apart from cases like CP / M-9 and OS, most have the basic routines in ROM (which could be your operating system) with the BASIC language. What today is generally known as the firmware of the peripherals (disk drive or a DVD player can be integrated into its circuitry precisely microcontrollers based on the CPUs of these teams).