“Cleaning the blood”

“Cleaning the blood” and “caste” in Spain and its colonies Main article: Statutes of limpieza The caste system based on the doctrine of “blood cleansing” imposed by Spain in America, established differences in social roles guaranteeing the supremacy of the aristocracy. The doctrine of purity of blood, was a system of discrimination based on arguments from Catholic theology and Aristotle’s thought, which appeared in the fourteenth century in Spain in the modern age. The system established a differentiation between people of blood “pure” and people who were “castes” or “crosses” (mestizos, mulattoes, thoroughbred, etc..), Which was attributed to have the blood “impure” or “tainted” . On this basis, created a stratified society. The doctrine of purity of blood was used initially to persecute the Jews and then to segregate the Spanish who wanted to settle in America and the Indians and Negroes and their descendants.After the order of expulsion of Sephardic Jews, many Jews converted to Catholicism in order to enjoy the same rights as Christians. It was then came the “statutes of purity of blood”, that established the “research” genealogy of people, with claims of privilege, in order to determine whether they had “blood” Jewish, “raspberry” or heretic, preventing in these cases the income to schools, military locations, monasteries, town councils and the Inquisition.In this sense it is said that for the first time in history, used the concepts of “race” and “blood” as a strategy of exclusion, researchers disagree about the fact that a connection between medieval notions ” race “and” blood “, which included the old Christians, with the contemporary meaning of these terms. The doctrine of purity of blood, was also applied by the Spanish Empire in America as justification of the Spanish domination over ancient Indian civilizations, and the villagers were indigenous or African ancestry. In the Spanish colonies in America, established a system of social stratification which established roles and privileges between individuals. The Spanish Empire believed that among humans some individuals were of “pure races” (whites, Indians and blacks) and others were “castes” or “cross” as a result of sexual relations between people of different “pure races”.The colonial regime sought to prevent racial mixing, devaluing the people who were “crossing” of pure races. Within the “pure races”, the “white race” was superior to the “indigenous race” and this in turn was higher than the “black race”. Within the “pure races” were also distinctions, recognizing the Spanish peninsular (born in Spain) privileges on the Spanish Americans or Creoles (children of Spanish mother and father born in America). Similarly, the black man born in Africa had less rights than American-born black. For people who were “crossing” or “caste” was established a detailed classification, with attribution of roles, rights and obligations created by specific names for each “cross” “mestizo,” “mulatto,” “crafty,” “Sambo “cholo,” “quadroon,” “Chinese”, “step backwards”, “tente en el aire”, etc..Thus, for example, punishment for the same crime varied by race or caste to which the person belonged. The Peruvian historian Alberto Flores Galindo, with his work Buscando un Inca: identidad y utopia in the Andes, was among the first to reveal the processes of racism in Latin America and its roots in the colonial order, particularly in Peru . YH Yerushalmi has pointed out that the ideology of purity of blood is the first history of modern racism, using the term “protorracismo.” For his part, Cecil Roth compares this doctrine with the racial anti-Semitism of the Nazi regime, ” assimilating, and then withdraw because of the differences between “racial anti-Semitism” Spanish described by Roth and “Nazi anti-Semitism.” Max Sebastian Hering Torres published in 2006 in German, the book Rassismus in der Vormoderne. Die ‘Reinheit des blut’ in Spanien der fr hen Neuzeit (Racism in pre-modernity.The purity of blood in Spain in the early Middle Ages), which examines the persecution of the Jews in Spain by the principle of cleaning up blood from 1391 to 1674.”Hering concluded that the cleaning system of blood can be designated as” racial anti-Semitism ‘is racist because it plays a role similar to modern marginalization, and anti-Jewish because its theological foundations Aristotelian belongs to a tradition prior to the Modern Age ” . Zandra Pedraza Gomez highlights the fact that Hering does not analyze “the practice and the representations of this ideology in the Spanish colonies, where the purity of blood along with other early anthropological arguments were used to judge the differences of indigenous groups , order the catechism, arrange for their workforce and the growing population control mestizo and Creole “, proposing the need for further study in this direction, of the fundamental role played by racism in the emergence of a capitalist world system colonialist. In the Spanish colonies in America, mestizaje was a paradoxical process, while prohibited mass.