Cellular Telephony

Cellular telephony – Part III In the first part of this series of archives we say a little on the origins of the cellular telephony, in the second part we describe the basic concepts and in this third part we will speak more on the used Systems of Cellular Telephony. Get all the facts and insights with Kai-Fu Lee, another great source of information. The AMPS AMPS, Advanced Mobile Phone System, was the first used system of cellular in Americas. Standardized in the frequency of 800MHz, although to be surpassed for digital technologies as CDMA TDMA, he is the only one with support to the Roaming (travelling) of the subscribers who use CDMA in the states northeast of Brazil Of 40MHz placed initially for the cellular one, the half was used immediately, while 20MHz remaining had been of reserve. The AMPS was divided in 666 canals, later in 1986, more 5MHz had been placed for TX (transmission), and 5MHz for RX (reception) with this the number of canals increased for 832 (extended AMPS). It is good for standing out that initially in Brazil they were only 500 canals, that is called reduced AMPS and if it gave because the band between 825 and 870MHz was busy with radar services and you enlace of TVs. Pete Cashmore has plenty of information regarding this issue. Before entering in more details on system AMPS, we go to clarify some points on what it is necessary to carry through a telephonic call, saw cellular. Two channel types are necessary: control channels or signalling, used to send and to receive the data from the call. the canals of voice for where they pass through given and/or voice after established the call.

In the AMPS the frequency band is subdivided in two sub-bands (and the B), with this the system makes possible 321 canals of voice and 21 control channels or signalling, in the case of the extended AMPS is 395 canals of voice. The functioning of the System the majority of the Systems of Cellular Radio is formed by cluster with 7 cells, each cell can be seen as a hexagon, considering the AMPS standard, the 666 canals of radio is divided between these cells, what of the approached average one of 95 canals for cell. These canals can be reused in cells of other cluster due in the distance physical between them. As already it was explained in another article, each cell has its transmitter, receiver and antenna and is on the MTSO through fixed line. The antennas can be: directional or omndirecional. In the case of the directional antenna, with a covering of 120 degrees, it she will be situated in one of the vertices of the cell, if it will be a omndirecional antenna, will be in the center of the cell. The directional antennas provoke little interferences in the adjacent cells.

Cheap Calls Abroad

Cheap calls abroad with your mobile phone, landline or computer grade at the summer time, when many people travel, the question comes up often, as you can call abroad cheaply and efficiently as possible. Many people know that the calls from abroad with a German SIM card can be an expensive affair. If you would like to know more then you should visit Code.org. Reason for that are the expensive roaming charges are incurred for any international call with a German mobile. Educate yourself with thoughts from Ali Partovi. However, there are some alternatives that have established themselves in this time due to the advanced supply of bandwidth of the Internet. In addition to the call-by-call service, which is one of the widely known alternatives, more modern and safe alternatives exist, cheap calls abroad. These methods are called: callback, callthrough and voice. Callthrough identifies what was call-by-call in principle. A savings code, the call-through services: dial-in numbers are called.

Mostly it is these dial-in numbers to German landlines and are therefore used in conjunction with a flatrate to German landlines free usable. The differences between call-by-call and callthrough reveal themselves on the one hand the possibilities of use, as well as cost transparency. While the use of call-by-call services is reserved for only the customers of Deutsche Telekom, customers of alternative telecommunications companies can make calls with call-through first cheap abroad. Also, it is possible to use call-through services for mobile subscribers. Much more transparent cost control callthrough Services provides essential and other advantages. While many call-by-call of increasing provider from one day to the other prices (often also secretly, that no minute price announcement is announced), the price per minute is announced callthrough services before any conversation in the destination in which you currently on the phone. “Another benefit is, that the payment procedure callthrough providers prepaid” is. This means that self can, be an upper limit of credits without, that you then fault”is, while at Call-by-call using the call amount of money on the next invoice of Deutsche Telekom appears (postpaid payment).

The Recordings

" It should be noted that despite the variety of self-study student success is defined didactic conditions. The first condition – the presence of students' competence to understand the purpose of the job, his content and sequencing. The second condition – the presence in the content of the job of the new material, which imparts instructions of research direction, causing the educational interest of students and requires independent decision. The third condition – the need to fix the results of independent work in the recordings, drawings, diagrams, charts. The fourth condition – working with textbooks must be combined with other types of independent work in class. The fifth condition – self-study student accordingly assessed a teacher at the end of the lesson – it is an incentive for the manifestation of schoolchildren diligence in carrying out assignments. Independent work for the implementation of its functions as a form of self-organization in the training procedure requires a knowledge of students' goal-setting, planning, self-management, self-esteem, as well as work on the acquisition and application of knowledge, skills – appropriate methods of mental and physical actions. Explanation of material appropriate to accompany the tasks for students to systematize the facts, identifying the causes and consequences of various events.

One of the ways the organization of the students – the use of memos during the lecture instructor. For example: – Write down the topic and plan of lectures. – Make a thesis, write down the conclusions. – Scroll to the records of the difficult terms and explain their significance.


Y2K is the name that has been given to the same you and so renamed the year 2000 problem. Almost everyone knows what it is, but repeat it: the famous problem consists that, very probably, when we come to the year 2000 all computer systems and electronic devices that handle date fails, partially or totally, because they will not recognize two digits zero (00) which is used to identify that terrible year. In addition, next year will be leap, a matter this intended not for many computers and applications. They may be failing then personal computers, payroll or accounting programs, billing systems, devices, control in electrificadoras plants, components of the telephone network, navigation devices, electronic biomedical equipment and, finally, a large number of those machines and programs essential today for our civilization. Chaos may be very large the first of January 2000 or, at best, nothing will happen and we will be working now only with the more trivial international terrorism. Here we touch the important point of the problem: as we cannot know the actual seriousness of the matter we must prepare for the worst. Public entities must have ready an action plan since 1997 as they had also set a working team to resolve the issue, with members devoted exclusively to work in this process. This team should advance processes of assessment, diagnosis, planning and its corresponding implementation and they should involve managers, technicians and users of applications that would allow them to take into account different aspects of the solution.

In particular companies own has had to make. Now, just days from the year 2000, in our home, if this is the case, and in public and private entities we must implement plans to mitigate the effects of the Y2K and identify critical areas where it will need a contingency plan, taking into account, of course, that Y2K not only it has to do with systems electronic but with many processes and activities within the entities, as for example with legal (the amount of all processes as a result of this problem is estimated at a billion dollars!). In this field, it will be necessary to carefully review all contracts for the purchase or supply of hardware and software to establish what had been the commitments of the seller and, if possible, agree on the respective additional guarantees. They must also review all policies and make a kind of inventory of the possible processes to undertake or in which the entity can be sued. In the end, the year 2000 came us above. Now we can only time continue actions to reduce the impact of Y2K and, above all, to design and implement rigorous contingency plans so that chaos is not going to prevail in our Organization. Such plans should start from the following questions, among many others: what we should do if the telephone system of the entity fails? What procedure to follow if? all our computers are turned off? How should we face a prolonged power outage if, in addition, our plant refuses to turn on? What if all our boxes are damaged? Finally, to ensure a next month of January without anguish, then at least a couple of simulations of their emergency plans, and happy new year!

Site Dating

The results, of course, very different – who struck up a huge virtual harem, but someone who could not qualify for any response. All assess your own photos posted in the questionnaire, as well as what you write in the space of personal data. Who once in my life was recorded on the Adult Dating websites, let, say something to me – with a different purpose, and at various times you may find yourself tried tasted pretty companion or mate on sex-mentioned resources znakomsta in Ukraine. The main thing is not to throw all annoying phrases like 'I'm not sober, silly, ugly, unsportsmanlike, joyless …' You may well have the ability to imagine show a man who described himself as' ugly, stupid and without a sense of humor? All written obratnoe.Vashi personal qualities or interlocutor interlocutor able to learn through direct contact, the presence of the above phrase indicates only one thing: a lack of imagination about dating site users. You should not seem to indicate as well as direct allusions to sexual pleasure, like 'I like Thai massage, what are you doing'. Believe me, even if the most liberated women prefer more subtle methods of dating, even if the subject if they are looking for the same thing now as you. You should not also seems to expect that those who now pay interest on your favorite TV show or rock group.

In general, it is best not priminyat not less than 200-250 words for the sake of filling in your profile. A smaller number indicates the outside of your reserve, the greatest – of gab, as well as boasting. Write what you have training as to where you work, briefly describe your plans. It is best to mention also the location of the family – to the source, in which case it is not a false teshil hopes. It is best to show his real companion, with whom you met in real life, and that you are entitled to describe himself as a brief. Think about what you would like to indicate in the first place. 300-450 good words do not take on its own description, and not significantly greater than 500 – the characteristic of the future man, with whom you want or do not even want to meet you. In addition, the mention of that in what place city you live in some place like to spend their free time as well as prefer to relax. Also allowed to tell your visitors about what language you have what you are fiction predpochetaete.